Lower Level 1 – Salon F
Critiques of language planning and policy have provided many important, nuanced insights into the limitations past approaches to the study and processes of language planning and policy analysis, which emphasized top-down, rationalist/technocratic approaches and the role of experts. Subsequent ideological/historical-structural approaches to policy analysis have been criticized for overemphasizing the role of the state-driven formal policies as instruments of social control. Newer, ethnographic and bottom-up approaches have emphasized the importance of focusing on local and individual agency, and critical studies are adding insights regarding resistance, transgression and negotiated spaces that occur through contact. While acknowledging these contributions, this paper presents a case for the on-going need for critical analysis and policy advocacy by documenting the consequences of restrictive formal policies and the resurgence of attacks on linguistic human rights.